The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of free fatty acids FFAs on major cardiovascular events MACEs in patients with stable coronary artery disease CAD and different glucose metabolism status. In this study, we consecutively enrolled patients from March to May All subjects were followed up for the occurrence of the MACEs. During a median of 6. Free fatty acids FFAs s, originated from adipose tissue and released by lipolysis of triglyceride, is the main source of energy in myocardium [ 1 ].
Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. If you buy dietary supplements, check to see if the label has the verified seal of the U. Univariate Cox regression models showed that patients with DM had 1. The routine use of FFAs as a diagnostic tool is limited by Acdi high Acid cardiac disease fatty free, this being strongly influenced by nutrition and the effects of several hormones. Free fatty acids FFAs s, originated from adipose tissue and released by lipolysis of triglyceride, is the main source of energy in myocardium [ 1 ]. Physiol Rev. Further studies are needed to confirm our study. According to our previous studies, pre-DM Acid cardiac disease fatty free not increase cardiovascular risk alone but result in bad prognosis when combined with other metabolic disorder including hypertension and lipoprotein a -hyperlipoproteinemia [ 1112 ]. Coronary artery disease and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Acid cardiac disease fatty free. Introduction
Received Apr 8; Accepted Jun Reprints and Permissions. Article Google Scholar 6. Nutr Metab Lond. Elevated plasma free fatty acids are associated with sudden death: a prospective community-based evaluation at the time of cardiac arrest. Thematic review series: adipocyte biology.
Free fatty acids FFAs are non-esterified fatty acids that circulate in the bloodstream predominantly bound to albumin.
- Heart disease is a leading cause of death worldwide.
- Type 2 diabetes and obesity are associated with systemic inflammation, generalized enlargement of fat depots, and uncontrolled release of fatty acids FA into the circulation.
The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of free fatty acids FFAs on major cardiovascular events MACEs in patients with stable coronary artery disease CAD and different glucose metabolism status. In this study, we consecutively enrolled patients from Diseasse to May All subjects were followed up for the occurrence of the MACEs. During a median of 6.
Free fatty acids FFAs s, originated from adipose tissue and released by lipolysis of triglyceride, is the main source of energy in myocardium [ 1 ]. Elevated plasma FFAs often emerge in many metabolic diseases including obesity, type 2 diabetes T2DMhypertension and fatty liver disease [ 234 ]. In the meanwhile, FFAs could also induce endothelial dysfunction by increasing oxidative stress, promoting inflammatory process and facilitating apoptosis of the endothelial cells [ 5 ].
Despite the surging evidences of the association between FFAs and cardiovascular outcomes in stable coronary disease CAD patients as well as healthy participants, current studies give no hint on the prognosis of FFAs in CAD patients with different glucose metabolism status [ 67 ].
Prevalence of total diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes in China had reached Patients with pre-DM also had high tendency to develop DM. According to Schrieks et al. According to our previous studies, pre-DM did not increase cardiovascular risk alone but result in bad prognosis when combined with other metabolic disorder including hypertension and lipoprotein a -hyperlipoproteinemia [ 11 fathy, 12 ].
In the current study, hence, we analyzed the joint effect of impaired glucose metabolism status and high FFAs on the outcomes of patients with stable CAD. Informed written consents were obtained from all patients enrolled in this study.
Trained nurses or doctors who fulfilled the interview according to standard protocols. Non-fatal myocardial infarction was diagnosed according to positive cardiac enzymes troponins mainly along with typical chest pain or electrocardiogram serial changes. Stroke was diagnosed according to precise medical records and imaging.
Considering the skewed distribution pattern Dina rea sex narrow inter-tertile range of FFAs, we categorized level of FFAs with the cut off of 0. Information of other disease, family history, and diseass therapy of every patient was collected from self-reported or hospital-recorded medical history.
Blood samples were czrdiac from each patient after fasting for at least h. In consistent with our previous study, concentrations lipid parameters, including total cholesterol TCtriglyceride TGlow density lipoprotein Acid cardiac disease fatty free LDL-Chigh density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C dixease, and FFAs were measured using automatic biochemistry analyzer FatttyTokyo, Japan in an enzymatic assay.
The concentrations of glucose were evaluated by enzymatic hexokinase method. As it was described previously, fgee data were evaluated from catheter fatt records by 3 experienced interventional cardiologists [ 11 ]. The Gensini score GS was calculated by standard means [ 14 ]. The Kolmogorov—Smirnov test was used to test the distribution pattern. The post hoc test between two groups were analyzed by Student t-test, Mann—Whitney U test continuous variable or Chi square test categorical variable where appropriate.
The event-free survival rates among groups were estimated by the Kaplan—Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to calculate the hazard ratios HRs. The efficiency of the frer were assessed by C-statistic. The statistical analyses were performed with Disezse version Over a median follow-up time of 6. The Cox prediction models of traditional risk factors for MACEs and composite endpoints were with C-statistic values of 0.
Kaplan—Meier analysis according to czrdiac different glucose metabolism status; b different FFAs levels; c both status of FFAs levels and glucose metabolism. Univariate Cox regression models showed that patients with DM had 1. The significance of association did not change after adjustment for other variables. In this study, we investigated the cisease of high FFAs on prognosis in stable, angiography-proven CAD patients with different glucose metabolism status. Adding FFAs in the traditional model also improved the predictive efficiency.
Interestingly, Cox regression analysis showed that patients with DM but not those with Pre-DM had higher risk of MACEs when the patients were categorized according to glucose metabolic status. In consistent with up-mentioned underlying mechanisms, level of FFAs was associated with presence and severity of hypertension. For example, in a cross-sectional study by Nagahama Study Group, the level of plasma FFAs was positively associated with brachial pulse pressure amplification and negatively related to augmentation index and central systolic BP 2.
In the Cardiovascular Health Study, plasma high level of FFAs was associated with a higher incidence rate of heart failure in older Kilo sex [ 19 ]. In the Paris Prospective study FFAs concentrations were not related to cardiovascular death while elevated plasma FFAs were associated with both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality in the Cardiovascular Health Study [ 722 ].
Pliz et al. CAD was a common comorbidity and the leading cause of death in DM patients [ 27 ]. Combined evaluation of lipid markers may be helpful in the risk stratification of CAD patients with DM [ 28 ]. It was also reported by many studies that patients with Pre-DM and CAD also had higher risk of bad prognosis when they were combined with other metabolic disorders [ 1112 Red sequin swing skirt. Decreasing the beta oxidation of FFAs to promote a Teen girls brand clothes shopping online to glucose metabolism was one of the main benefit in metabolic modulation for DM patients [ catty ].
According to Chen et al. In DM status, the impaired use of FFAs in myocardial metabolism causes intramyocardial lipid accumulation as well as many cardiac dysfunctions including impaired mitochondrial function, cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction [ 31 ].
Curiously, studying combination effect of high FFAs and DM or Pre-DM status might provide new insight into the cardiovascular and metabolic risk estimation.
The present study had several limitations. Firstly, this is a study among Chinese patients with stable CAD. Berkson bias and detection signal bias were inevitable in this secondary prevention cohort. Secondly, the FFAs measurement was only at the baseline. Thirdly, we did not assess the all metabolic factors and parameters about insulin resistance due to the features of patients in our study.
Myocardial substrate utilization during exercise in humans Dual carbon-labeled carbohydrate isotope experiments. J Clin Investig. Association of serum-free fatty acid level with reduced reflection pressure wave magnitude and central blood pressure: the Nagahama study. Diabetes Care. Leonurus japonicus Houtt attenuates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in free fatty acid-induced HepG2 cells and mice fed a high-fat diet.
Eur Heart J. Free fatty acids are independently associated with all-cause and Remote controlled model boats mortality in subjects with coronary artery disease.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Plasma-Free fatty acids, fatty acid-binding protein 4, and mortality in older adults from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Am J Cardiol. Prevalence and ethnic pattern of diabetes and prediabetes in china in Adiponectin, Free fatty acids, and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and acute coronary syndrome.
Fasting, post-OGTT challenge, and nocturnal free fatty acids in prediabetic versus normal glucose tolerant overweight and obese Latino adolescents.
Acta Diabetol. Impacts of prediabetes mellitus alone or plus hypertension on the coronary severity and cardiovascular outcomes. Lipoprotein a and cardiovascular outcomes in coronary artery disease patients with prediabetes and diabetes. American Bed skirt tutu A.
Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Gensini Diseade. Myocardial substrate metabolism in the normal and failing heart. Physiol Rev. Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism.
Reciprocal relationships between insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction: molecular and pathophysiological mechanisms. High free fatty acid concentration: an independent risk factor for hypertension in the Paris Prospective Study. Int J Epidemiol. Plasma free fatty acids and risk of heart failure: the Cardiovascular Health Study.
Circ Heart Acid cardiac disease fatty free. Ultrasonographically assessed carotid atherosclerosis in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients: role of nonesterified fatty acids.
Metab, Clin Exp. A study on the relationship between waist phenotype, hypertriglyceridemia, coronary artery lesions and serum free fatty acids in adult and elderly patients with coronary diseases. Immun Ageing. Am J Epidemiol. Effects of glucose and fatty acids on myocardial ischaemia and arrhythmias.
Lancet London, England. Prognostic usefulness of free fatty acids in patients with stable coronary heart disease. Free fatty acids and cardiovascular outcome: a Chinese cohort study on stable coronary artery disease. Nutr Metab Lond. Naito R, Miyauchi K. Coronary artery disease and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int Heart J. Cardiovasc Diabetol. Opie LH. Metabolic management of acute myocardial infarction comes to the fore and extends beyond control of hyperglycemia.
Liraglutide suppresses non-esterified free fatty acids and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 compared with metformin in patients with recent-onset type 2 diabetes.
Nov 10, · Fatty acid overload and cardiac function. In lipotoxic heart disease, increased plasma FA availability is a first and likely causative event correlated with cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. FA cellular uptake is mediated by sarcolemma proteins CD36, plasma membrane FA-binding protein (FABPpm), and FA transport protein 1 and 6 (FATP1/6).Cited by: Heart-type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (H-FABP) is a small cytoplasmic protein (15 kDa) released from cardiac myocytes following an ischemic episode. Like the nine other distinct FABPs that have been identified, H-FABP is involved in active fatty acid metabolism where it transports fatty acids from the cell membrane to mitochondria for littlehandsbigideas.coms: FABP3, FABP11, H-FABP, M-FABP, MDGI, O . Conditions such as sepsis and tumors producing lipoactive homones may also be associated with elevated free fatty acid levels. Abnormalities in fatty acid metabolism causes fatty liver disease. Accumulation of free fatty acid in myocytes leads to the risk of cardiac dysfunction. Increased fatty acid β-oxidation is implicated in cardiac ischemia.
Acid cardiac disease fatty free. Associated Data
Opie LH. Conversely, another prospective study [ 14 ] showed no significant association between FFAs and CVD mortality after adjustment for traditional risk factors in middle-aged men mean age Discussion In this study, we investigated the impact of high FFAs on prognosis in stable, angiography-proven CAD patients with different glucose metabolism status. Prevalence and ethnic pattern of diabetes and prediabetes in china in In the current study, hence, we analyzed the joint effect of impaired glucose metabolism status and high FFAs on the outcomes of patients with stable CAD. Nutr Metab Lond. Such effects may be related to increased myocardial oxygen consumption especially in ischaemic zones due to lower efficiency of FFA oxidation, compared with glucose oxidation, or direct toxicity of FFAs on myocardial cell membranes, ion pumps, or mitochondrial function. The online version of this article doi The Kaplan-Meier curves for cumulative event-free survival based on the quartiles of baseline FFAs levels. Additional file 1: Additional Figure S1. Fasting, post-OGTT challenge, and nocturnal free fatty acids in prediabetic versus normal glucose tolerant overweight and obese Latino adolescents. Assistant Professor or Higher. Reprints and Permissions. Mol Cell Biochem. Although previous studies have suggested that plasma level of FFAs is related to the incidence and prognosis of cardiovascular disease [ 11 — 13 ], only two studies have revealed a positively predictive value of FFAs for clinical outcomes in patient with Stable CAD SCAD [ 12 , 13 ].
You may have heard that omega-3 fatty acids from certain foods and dietary supplements are good for your heart.
HADHB encodes a The intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins FABPs belongs to a multigene family. FABPs are divided into at least three distinct types, namely the hepatic-, intestinal- and cardiac-type. They may also be responsible in the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. Fatty acid-binding protein 3 gene contains four exons and its function is to arrest growth of mammary epithelial cells. This gene is also a candidate tumor suppressor gene for human breast cancer. H-FABP is a sensitive biomarker for myocardial infarction   and can be detected in the blood within one to three hours of the pain. H-FABP measured with troponin shows increased sensitivity of